Frank, L. D. “Multiple Impacts of the Built Environment on Public Health: Walkable Places and the Exposure to Air Pollution.” International Regional Science Review 28.2 (2005): 193-216. Web. 14 Mar. 2017.
Many American’s are dependent on their vehicles for transportation due to the lack of opportunities to walk for utilitarian purposes, which has contributed to the increasing levels of air pollution and the alarmingly increasing rate of obesity among Americans. In this scholarly article, Frank states that “mixed use and more compact community designs show significant promise for the promotion for the promotion of physical activity and the reduction of regional air pollution levels.” There are many different possible ways to promote an increase in physical activity, such as compact development, which would encourage people to walk to more places, resulting in a reduction in the amount of air pollution emitted by vehicles. Conversely, with increased compact developments comes the possibility for traffic congestion which would result in an increase of exposure to harmful emission within those central areas. Therefore this study is inconclusive at the time being, and further research is needed.