Wilby, R.l. “A Review of Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment.” Built Environment 33.1 (2007): 31-45. Web. 16 Mar. 2017.
According to Wilby, “it is shown that built areas exert considerable influence over their local climate and environment, and that urban populations are already facing a range of weather-related risks such as heat waves, air pollution episodes, and flooding” (Wilby 2007). This review discusses the evidence of climate change and how it effects the environment in four main ways: urban ventilation and cooling, urban drainage and flood risk, water resources, and outdoor spaces. Wilby states that since climate change is expected to effect these problems, building designers and spatial planners are reacting to these changes with improved building design and changing the layout of cities. Roof top gardens provide multiple benefits for air quality and enhancing biodiversity. Wilby points out that “hard engineering solutions will continue to play a role in adapting to climate change, but so too will improved forecasting and preparedness, along with risk avoidance through planning controls” (Wilby 2007).
Schneider, Richard H., and Ted Kitchen. Crime prevention and the built environment. London: Routledge, 2007. Web.
In this book, titled Crime Prevention and the Built Environment, Schneider and Kitchen point out how the form, layout, and location of built environments have an impact on the opportunity to commit crime, which means the developers of these communities should be considering different forms of crime prevention as well. A high number of crimes take place in particular areas, and the characteristics of these areas have an influence on the types of crimes that do and don’t occur. Schneider and Kitchen bring up an idea to help control the crime levels, he suggests that “we might manipulate the physical environment at both the micro and macro scales in order to reduce or even eliminate the opportunities for crimes to be committed” (Schneider & Kitchen 2007). Throughout this text, Schneider and Kitchen discuss the main three challenges that they will be addressing, and possible ways to address and potentially fix these challenges.
Evans, Gary ; Evans Terry. Environmental Stress. Cambridge: Cambridge U Press, 2011. Web. 14 Mar. 2017.
According to Chapter 6 of this book, there is evidence that built environments may produce both direct and indirect stress. Evan discusses the many different ways in which the built environment can cause an individual to be stressed. He states that if a tourist is searching for a particular building and cannot find it, this will cause the tourist to feel stressed. If the tourist is supposed to be at that building at a certain time, perhaps for a meeting, and cannot locate the building in time, it will cause the tourist to feel an entirely different level of stress. Another example of how built environments could cause stress would be with traffic, especially since traffic seems to be more congested around popular built environments. Evans delves into a few strategies to help deal with this stress caused by built environments.
Frank, L. D. “Multiple Impacts of the Built Environment on Public Health: Walkable Places and the Exposure to Air Pollution.” International Regional Science Review 28.2 (2005): 193-216. Web. 14 Mar. 2017.
Many American’s are dependent on their vehicles for transportation due to the lack of opportunities to walk for utilitarian purposes, which has contributed to the increasing levels of air pollution and the alarmingly increasing rate of obesity among Americans. In this scholarly article, Frank states that “mixed use and more compact community designs show significant promise for the promotion for the promotion of physical activity and the reduction of regional air pollution levels.” There are many different possible ways to promote an increase in physical activity, such as compact development, which would encourage people to walk to more places, resulting in a reduction in the amount of air pollution emitted by vehicles. Conversely, with increased compact developments comes the possibility for traffic congestion which would result in an increase of exposure to harmful emission within those central areas. Therefore this study is inconclusive at the time being, and further research is needed.
Clarke, P., J. A. Ailshire, M. Bader, J. D. Morenoff, and J. S. House. “Mobility Disability and the Urban Built Environment.” American Journal of Epidemiology 168.5 (2008): 506-13. Web. 14 Mar. 2017.
In this scholarly article, the authors used data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study to examine the effect of built environments on adults 45 years or older with mobility disabilities. The built environment characteristics were assessed by using systematic social observation to rate the quality of the streets and sidewalks in their neighborhoods. The test results were separated based on their level of physical impairment in their lower extremities. The authors of this article found that the street conditions didn’t have an effect on the outdoor mobility of adults with more severe impairment in neuromuscular and movement-related functions. “The difference in the odd ratios for reporting sever mobility disability was over four times greater when at least one street was in fair or poor condition” (Clarke, Ailshire, Bader, Morenoff, & House 2008). Overall, if the quality of the streets and sidewalks could be improved, it would clearly benefit people with all levels of mobility disability.
Evans, G. W. “The Built Environment and Mental Health.” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 80.4 (2003): 536-55. Web. 5 Mar. 2017.
There are many different things that have an effect on mental health, including ones surroundings. According to this scholarly article it has been shown that “the mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction” (Evans, 2003). It is also reported in this article that “malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins cause behavioral disturbances. Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms” (Evans, 2003). Certain aspects of the built environment have an effect on mental health due to the abundance or lack there of personal control, socially supportive relationships, and places to rest and recuperate from stress and fatigue.
Although this article seems to have an abundance of insightful information, it appears as though it would be difficult to come to a definitive conclusion about whether or not built environments have an effect on mental health. The article states that your surroundings can have an effect on mental health, but people with lower incomes would not be able to afford to live in the same area as those with higher incomes. Therefore this study is inconclusive.
“The Built Environment: Designing Communities to Promote Physical Activity in Children.” Pediatrics 123.6 (2009): 1591-598. Web. 5 Mar. 2017.
This scholarly article, written by a committee of Pediatricians, delves into how built environments have an impact on the physical health and activity of children. It reports that approximately 32% of American children are overweight, and how physical inactivity is a huge part of the reason why so many children are overweight. The built environment can have an impact on the amount of physical activity that children get throughout the day. In this article, the Pediatricians point out how neighborhoods and communities can provide more opportunities for physical activity by having parks and open spaces for the children to play. As stated by the committee of Pediatricians, “factors such as the school’s location have played a significant role in the decreased rates of walking to school, and changes in policy may help to increase the number of children who are able to walk to school” (Pediatricians, 2009). Modifications to the environment that address risks linked to the volume of traffic in the surrounding areas could have a positive impact on the amount of walking and biking among children. Studies show that outdoor physical activity would also be increased if certain actions were taken to make the space feel safer and to reduce the fear of crime. This article reports that there will be new policies in place which will promote a more active lifestyle among children and teens.
Moudon, Anne Vernez, Chanam Lee, Allen D. Cheadle, Cheza W. Collier, Donna Johnson, Thomas L. Schmid, and Robert D. Weather. “Cycling and the built environment, a US perspective.” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 10.3 (2005): 245-61. Web. 5 Mar. 2017.
This scholarly article discusses information regarding cycling and built environments. According to the results from the experiment performed, approximately 21% of people reported that they cycle at least once a week in their neighborhood, and usually cycle for fun or exercise rather than for transportation (Moudon, 2005). Moudon reports that “cycling is more popular among males, younger adults, transit users, and those who are physically active and in good health” (Moudon, 2005). In the study conducted, it was established that perceived and objective environmental conditions both contribute to the likelihood of cycling, along with the distance to trails and the presence of offices, clinics/hospitals, and fast food restaurants. Throughout this experiment, it was also reported that the bicycle lanes, the speed and amount of traffic, whether or not the area has hills, how long the streets or “blocks” are, and the presence of parks were all found insignificant when measuring the likelihood of cycling. The results of the experiment that is discussed in this scholarly article conclude that cycling is only moderately associated with the neighborhood environment.
Garfinkel-Castro, Andrea, Keuntae Kim, Hamidi Shima, and Reid Ewing. “The Built Environment and Obesity.” Metabolic Syndrome (2015): 1-14. Web. 5 Mar. 2017.
In this article, Garfinkel-Castro discusses how built environments have an effect on the rate of obesity. He reports that the obesity rates for both children and adults have been rapidly increasing the past two decades. There are many physical, mental, and social consequences that come with obesity. Garfinkel-Castro states that “recent discussions regarding the obesity epidemic have focused on the role the environment plays in the increasing energy consumption and decreasing energy expenditure” (Garfinkel-Castro, 2015). He then continues on to say that the built environment plays an important role when it comes to influencing obesity because certain built environments create a climate that promotes increased energy consumption and reduced energy expenditure, also known as laziness. In this article, it explains how different aspects of built environments, such as housing, urban development, land use, transportation, industry, and agriculture have an influence on one’s health in a multitude of ways.
I believe that this scholarly article, “The Built Environment and Obesity” is a credible source. It has a variety of sources, along with citations, to provide evidence that the information in this article is valid and true.
Jackson, Richard J. “The Impact of the Built Environment on Health: An Emerging Field.” American Journal of Public Health 93.9 (2003): 1382-384. Web. 5 Mar. 2017.
In this scholarly article, Jackson points out how built environments have an effect on our health. People are finally beginning to realize that the design of the built environment can have an effect on many different health concerns such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma, to name a few. He says, “some of our current zoning laws that block high-density, live-work-play developments derive from interventions that helped prevent the spread of tuberculosis and other infectious diseases in the 19th century” (Jackson, 2003). Next, Jackson went on to state how these public health laws also helped to separate homes and schools from the odors and toxic emissions of slaughterhouses and tanneries. As the population continued to grow, people began to move out of the city and into the suburbs, which in turn meant they would have to commute to work. This led to forests and farmlands being plowed over and turned into roadways, shopping malls, schools, and subdivisions, which had an effect on the overall health of America.
“The Impact Of The Built Environment On Health: An Emerging Field” does appear to be a credible source. It is an unbiased, scholarly article, with plenty of sources to back up the information provided in this article. The author of this article is the director of the National Center of Environmental Health at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia.